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Method for assessing the sapphires and rubies

Identification of Sapphire:

Natural blue color is often uneven, straight growth of most lines. Synthetic sapphire the same color, its growth patterns for the curved, often visible in vivo have bread crumb or beaded bubbles.
Natural Sapphire also Dichroic, from one direction, blue, look for blue-green from the other direction. Other gems are different from natural blue color, which can be distinguished.
In addition, the most simple method of determination of hardness, scratched on a natural Blue Topaz, Blue Topaz-gem in the scratched, so when buying jewellery, such as no cash instruments, as long as there is a Topaz, but it can solve some of the problems.
“Added Sapphire”

Sapphire’s English name is Sapphire, comes from the Latin Spphins, meaning blue. Sapphire mineral known as corundum, a mineral corundum family. At present gem outside of Ruby, the other variously colored gem-quality corundum are called Sapphire.
Sapphire’s chemical composition is aluminium oxide (Al2O3), because it contains trace elements ti (Ti4+) or iron (Fe2+) is blue. Three-party system. Often tubular morphology, short columnar, tabular, and geometry as granules or dense block. Transparent to translucent, shiny glass. Refractive indexes, 1.76, 1.77, birefringence 0.008 and strong Dichroism. Non-homogeneous body. Sometimes with special optical effect-Starlight effect. Hardness of 9, density of 3.95-4.1 g/cm3. No cleavage, crack development. Under certain conditions, you can have a beautiful six-shot star, known as “star sapphire.”
Sapphire can be divided into blue sapphires and bright color (blue) Sapphire. Color to India “cornflower blue” is the best. Sapphires are said to protect the King and the monarchy from harm, “the stone of the Kings,” said. International gem Sapphire was designated as “September birthstone”, a symbol of love, loyalty and constancy.
Ruby methods:
Natural stone “ten crack red nine”, without any defect and cracking of natural Ruby is extremely rare. Synthetic Ruby color, defects or less crystalline inclusions, clean, large blocks. As precious gems on the market over 3 carats of natural Ruby is rare, encounter a large block of Ruby, to attract attention, because natural Ruby correspondingly greater higher value than faux rubies and little oversight, “medicine”.
Natural rubies have a strong “dichroic”, the so-called Dichroic, that seen from a different direction, with shades of red and orange-red two, if there is only one color may be red spinel, Garnet or red glass.
Natural Ruby Red Spinel is very similar to the two most confusing, so it must be particularly careful.
“Added Ruby”
Ruby’s English name is Ruby, comes from the Latin Ruber, meaning red. Ruby mineral known as corundum.
Chemical constituents of Ruby aluminium oxide (Al2O3), because it contains trace element chromium (Cr3+) into a red to pink. Three-party system. Morphology is often in barrel, short columnar, tabular, and so on. Aggregates for granular or compact block. Transparent to translucent, shiny glass. Refractive indexes, 1.76, 1.77, birefringence 0.008 – 0.010. Dichroism of obvious and non-homogeneous. Sometimes with special optical effect-the star effect, light is reflected under the charming six shooting stars, known as the “six-line”. Hardness of 9, density of 3.95 to 4.10 g/cm3. No cleavage, crack development. Ruby on long and short wave ultraviolet irradiation issued red and dark red fluorescence.
Ruby Red, the most valuable is the most concentrated, is called ‘ pigeon blood ‘ gem, very valuable. This almost could be called dark red bright strong colors, true colors show clear Ruby. Unfortunately most of the Ruby-red color is pale and feeling with the powder, with shades of Ruby pigeon blood, more valuable. As Ruby filled with intense anger and gaudy colors, people used to think it was the personification of dead birds, their wishful fantasies. Natural Ruby origin non-scarce, high quality Ruby only a production in Myanmar, and production is gradually reduced, and can now say, virtually incapacitated, a large stone would no longer appear.
Evaluation and purchase of Ruby. Ruby color is the primary assessment and purchasing factor, followed by weight, transparency and clarity. In General, color purity, particle size, transparency, and none or very few inclusions and blemishes, fine processing, parts in proportion to faceted rubies for superior quality. Burmese Ruby, pigeon blood red, color, transparency, and large size, very few defects and cracks. Sri Lanka’s rubies, light color, the main species are the Star Ruby. Thailand pointed bamboo pattern Ruby, deep red color not so bright and clean. Ruby has a brittle, percussion, beats, wear should pay attention to.

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Quality assessment of Sapphire and Ruby

Due to quality natural rubies and sapphires are generally small, and decay at a faster rate every year, so its value and value-added features than diamond. Compared with the diamond, as the actual situation is more complex and less research, and evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire is much harder than diamond. But the industry still has some generally accepted evaluation based on these bases include color, weight, transparency, clarity, processing, and so on.

Due to quality natural rubies and sapphires are generally small, and decay at a faster rate every year, so its value and value-added features than diamond. Compared with the diamond, as the actual situation is more complex and less research, and evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire is much harder than diamond. So far, there is no internationally accepted standards. In terms of evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire, different reviewers based on their knowledge and experience will give different results. But the industry still has some generally accepted evaluation based on these bases include color, weight, transparency, clarity, processing, and so on.
, Color
Rubies and sapphires including color, hue, and saturation of the color. Colors are divided into five categories, excellent, very good, good, good, bad; color shades are divided into five categories: very deep, dark, medium, light, and very shallow; saturation by vividness is divided into five categories: very high, high, medium, low, low. As far as the color and tone. Natural Ruby and Sapphire cannot appear as a single spectral color, which will be divided into main color and color, Ruby Red, asked with a faint yellow, blue and purple; mainly blue Sapphire, there might be a faint yellow and green tones. In principle, the color of rubies and sapphires the closer to the ideal spectral color, higher color quality. Pigeon blood red in Burma and Kashmir Sapphire, cornflower and ideal spectral color is close to, and therefore the best quality. If the proportion of larger less pure color, lower the color quality.
Most valuable Ruby pigeon blood red is the color of tick, followed by the lighter purple. Transparent Ruby Red, slightly brownish red, rose, pink was considered less than ideal color. Star Ruby, however, these colors are also very popular.
Sapphire, generally considered the ideal color is pure and uniform supervision. For Golden Sapphire, but, due to its more rare Sapphire fire, coupled with the strong brightness more. Which is also very popular. Sapphire with color effects, because it can be fake stone, is very rare, it is also very likeable. Blue, yellow, and color changing Sapphire is the most popular on the market of several colors.

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Quality assessment of Sapphire and Ruby
Due to quality natural rubies and sapphires are generally small, and decay at a faster rate every year, so its value and value-added features than diamond. Compared with the diamond, as the actual situation is more complex and less research, and evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire is much harder than diamond. But the industry still has some generally accepted evaluation based on these bases include color, weight, transparency, clarity, processing, and so on.
Due to quality natural rubies and sapphires are generally small, and decay at a faster rate every year, so its value and value-added features than diamond. Compared with the diamond, as the actual situation is more complex and less research, and evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire is much harder than diamond. So far, there is no internationally accepted standards. In terms of evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire, different reviewers based on their knowledge and experience will give different results. But the industry still has some generally accepted evaluation based on these bases include color, weight, transparency, clarity, processing, and so on.
, Color
Rubies and sapphires including color, hue, and saturation of the color. Colors are divided into five categories, excellent, very good, good, good, bad; color shades are divided into five categories: very deep, dark, medium, light, and very shallow; saturation by vividness is divided into five categories: very high, high, medium, low, low. As far as the color and tone. Natural Ruby and Sapphire cannot appear as a single spectral color, which will be divided into main color and color, Ruby Red, asked with a faint yellow, blue and purple; mainly blue Sapphire, there might be a faint yellow and green tones. In principle, the color of rubies and sapphires the closer to the ideal spectral color, higher color quality. Pigeon blood red in Burma and Kashmir Sapphire, cornflower and ideal spectral color is close to, and therefore the best quality. If the proportion of larger less pure color, lower the color quality.
Most valuable Ruby pigeon blood red is the color of tick, followed by the lighter purple. Transparent Ruby Red, slightly brownish red, rose, pink was considered less than ideal color. Star Ruby, however, these colors are also very popular.
Sapphire, generally considered the ideal color is pure and uniform supervision. For Golden Sapphire, but, due to its more rare Sapphire fire, coupled with the strong brightness more. Which is also very popular. Sapphire with color effects, because it can be fake stone, is very rare, it is also very likeable. Blue, yellow, and color changing Sapphire is the most popular on the market of several colors.
Zircon
Zircon
Second, the weight
Natural gem-quality Ruby particles are very small, rare 1ct, is greater than the 5ct who rarities, so gem, the greater and greater increases in the price per carat, premium than its carat diamond. So far, Hong Bao million carats of premium level occurred mainly in LCT, 3ct, 5ct and 10ct. So far, the world’s biggest Ruby found in Myanmar, 3450ct. Famous pigeon blood red Ruby, only the largest weight of 55ct, largest Star Ruby is produced in Sri Lanka, 387ct, these are the world famous treasures.
Sapphire more yield than rubies, few carats by common, dozens of carats were rare, but 100ct are still very rare. Blue House found in the world’s largest stone weighs 19kg, native to Sri Lanka. One is called “stars of Asia” giant star sapphires, weighs as much as 330ct, is a world famous treasures. Set in United Kingdom Crown cross Center of the “Saint Edward sapphires”, is also the world famous treasures. Generally speaking, natural Sapphire much lower price than natural Ruby.
Compare with Ruby, Sapphire weighs on the value of its influence is much smaller, but also have a greater impact. Greater weight, higher prices per carat.
Third, transparency and clarity
To transparent Ruby and Sapphire, the evaluation should consider the clarity and transparency. The more pure, transparent Ruby and Sapphire, the price is higher, but are completely transparent, no time, no crack Ruby is hard to come by. Because under 10 times magnification, small defects where Ruby there, or the various inclusion. In very rare cases, the transparency and clarity of the Ruby naturally lower.
Due to the fairly pure transparent sapphires are easy to find, for purposes of evaluation of Sapphire, clarity, and transparency requirements are much higher than Ruby. Really good quality Sapphire, generally require pure, transparent, not high purity and transparency, its price will be greatly affected.
Four, machining technology
Evaluation of Ruby and Sapphire-another important factor is the processing of precious stones, add not only affect the appearance of the plant, but also the color. High quality Ruby and Sapphire require cut to size at the bottom. If the bottom is too shallow, to make the Center a “dead zone” If the bottom is too deep, it will affect transparency, regular disorder, affecting both the mosaic. That happens, prices will be greatly reduced.
Star rubies and sapphires should be evaluated separately. Must be equipped with the desired color and uniform color, flawless, polished and fine condition, more importantly star brightness, shape, location, soundness, and proportion. The brighter the star line, shape the rules the better. Intersection of the star line requirements located in the apex of the dome-shaped stones. Deviation from the vertex, will seriously affect the price of a gem. In addition, Star gems require star line is thin and straight, intact, as there was a shortage of bright lines, bent off on line and on line also would seriously affect its price. The processing of precious stones are also important considerations, specifically considering the weight below the Girdle. The ideal ratio of gem Girdle weight total gem weight for the following part l/4 hinge to fit, too heavy to increase the weight of precious stones but will affect the stone’s color, the brightness of the stars, and beautiful. Jeweller in order to get a higher rate of interest, gem Girdle the following parts will be too large, which make consumer attention.

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Prices on genuine sapphires and rubies?

Sapphire, Ruby prices than prices expensive, depending on specific prices are depending on the variety. Generally in are is “Acura” of conditions Xia, each carats (Carat, abbreviations for CT. 1ct=0.2 grams. General gem of measurement units with “carats” said) of price by high to low of order for: Ruby, cat’s eye, Sapphire. for example Ruby in the of most high-end varieties “pigeon red”, can up tens of thousands of Yuan a carats, and diamond quite, even over diamond. This three species are is high-end gem, evaluation Shi also with grain degrees (weight) size about. valuation Shi, not carats weight multiplied by price, But squared multiplied by the unit price to calculate carat weight. quality grade under the same conditions, if a 1-Carat Ruby for 20000 Yuan, the price of a 3-Carat Ruby is: 3 squared is 9, then multiplied by the unit price 20000 Yuan, the 180000.

Ruby and Sapphire, are is chemical components for alumina of mineral corundum in the reached gem level of two a varieties. Dang in components in the contains must volume of chrome (Cr) Shi, rendering red of on called Ruby. Dang contains iron, titanium on rendering blue; Dang contains iron titanium and chrome Shi, on rendering purple; Dang contains iron nickel Shi, on rendering yellow; Dang contains vanadium cobalt nickel or iron Shi, can rendering green.
Other than the called Ruby Red, other colors are called Sapphire. so, Ruby will be red, but may not have blue Sapphire. purple Sapphire, yellow Sapphire … …
In Ruby, the one from Myanmar known as “pigeon blood red” variety, is best in Ruby, now it’s hard to see the real pigeon blood red.
Sapphire, blue with a “cornflower blue” breed the best (in Kashmir), now rarely got. Blue Sapphire currently on the market sunk to the sea the better from Sri Lanka, known as the “blue card.” color of Sapphire in Shandong province in China has dark (near black), so popularity is not high.
Sapphire, yield far more than rubies in nature, the main reason for this is Ruby tends to cost more than the Sapphire. of course, this is in color, clarity, weight, cut, transparency and evaluation aspects of special optical effect comparison of comparable conditions.
Another point is that Ruby’s block size is difficult to have a greater, which is a factor in the evaluation of higher.
General now says the hardness, are all examples of hardness.
Hardness was in 1822, France established mineralogist. it selects 10 minerals characterization of relative hardness tests each other. the 10 kinds of minerals in order of priority is as follows:
1. TALC
2. gypsum
3. calcite
4. the fluorite
5. HA
6. feldspar
7. quartz
8. Topaz
9. corundum
10. Diamond
Rubies and sapphires are reached gem varieties of corundum, its hardness is 9.
Diamond, was reached in diamond gem-quality variety, hardness of 10.
You say “Topaz” was formerly known as “Operation Topaz”, that is now known as the Topaz, its hardness is 8.
Amethyst, Crystal Violet, and quartz crystal is transparent, its hardness is 7.
Garnet’s hardness of 6.5–7.5.

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Introduction of Sapphire

Sapphire is corundum gems apart from Ruby Red, other colors of corundum gem is known, primarily composed of alumina (Al2O3) for September’s birthstone.

Call
Generally Sapphire Sapphire in English comes from Greece sappheiros, meaning blue rocks.
Component

Blue Sapphire, is due to mixed with small amounts of titanium (Ti) and iron (Fe) impurities caused by color of Sapphire, pink, yellow, green, white, or even on the same stone in a variety of colors, but these kinds of Sapphire are less valuable. The only non-precious is a pinkish-Orange sapphire blue, known as Padparacha or Padparadja.
Origin
Sapphire’s place in Thailand, Myanmar, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Laos, Cambodia, Africa, Madagascar, Kashmir, one of the rarest habitats should belong to Kashmir sapphires. Gemstone experts also pointed out that only three places in the world to produce fine sapphires: Burma, Sri Lanka, Madagascar. Blue Sapphire from Myanmar were regarded as treasures by collectors, it’s reminiscent of the sky and the sea. According to the United States the Gemological Institute said medieval clergy priest ring set blue sapphires, because this colour is a symbol of paradise.
Make
In the laboratory can be easy and cheap to produce gem-quality Ruby and Sapphire, the chemical composition and physical properties identical to natural Sapphire. Synthetic sapphire crystal growth is the identifying feature stripes, in the process of rapid growth due to lift growth, it is usually curved.
Eastern blue sapphire blue giant is the largest known, found in the Kashmir region, weighing 486.52 carats (97.3 g).
Star Sapphire
Sapphire is a more rare form of “Star sapphires”, very famous in history. Its needle-like the slight impurities, causing the optical effects of Star, hence the name. Famous star sapphire such as “India Star” and “the Black Star of Queensland”, who has appeared in headlines.
563-Carat “India Star”, may be the world’s most famous star sapphire. In Sri Lanka, more than 300 years ago coming out of the mine, was the United States finance giant j · P Morgan collection, 1900 Morgan donated it to the United States Museum of natural history
733-Carat “Black Star of Queensland” is the largest star sapphire in the world, in Australia was found in 1930.
Advantage
Select Sapphire married ring of women increasingly more, its reasons is Sapphire hardness after diamond, and but price cheap many, and easily wear and can reduced husband pressure, furthermore is increasingly more women not hope purchase cookie of married ring, and with popular or social dance, and more important of is Sapphire components according to origin and different, and but diamond cannot according to components respectively origin, and buy Sapphire can easily of avoid buy to blood diamond.
Characters
Color: dark blue, light blue, transparent also. Can be pink, yellow, green, white, or even on the same stone in a variety of colors.
Luster:
Morphology:
Streaks:
Hardness: 9, extremely hard, second only to diamonds
Feature: is September’s birthstone

Source: http://www.ch-microtek.com/